The shape and size of spores characterized in the website presented here were determined based on at least 50 intact spores mounted in a drop of water or lactic acid placed on a microscope slide. The dimensions were determined using a light microscope equipped with an ocular micrometer.

The thickness of layers of spore wall and germination walls was measured in spores freshly isolated and crushed in PVLG or PVLG+Melzer’s reagent. Storage of spores in, e. g., lactic acid usually makes layers to thicken and changes their staining intensity in Melzer’s reagent. The thickness of spore wall layers and germination wall layers (in Archaeospora, Acaulospora, Entrophospora, Glomus dominikii Blaszk., and Scutellospora spp.) was determined under a light microscope equipped with a micrometer eyepiece.

The measurements of mycorrhizae were made using a light microscope equipped with an ocular micrometer or a micrometer eyepiece.

Colours of spores were determined when they were in water and were observed under a dissecting microscope. Colours of spore wall layers or germinal wall layers were determined in spores crushed in either water or PVLG, as well as in PVLG+Melzer’s reagent when staining reactions were to be examined.

Colours of mycorrhizae come from roots stained in 0.1% trypan blue, mounted in PVLG, and observed under a light microscope.

Colours were determined according to Kornerup and Wanscher (1983).


Kornerup A., Wanscher J. H. 1983. Methuen handbook of colour. 3rd Ed. E. Methuen and Co., Ltd., London. 252 pp.