Acervulus - (pl. -li; adj. -lar) - a saucer-shaped conidioma (embedded in host tissue) in which the hymenium of conidiogenous cells develops on the floor of the cavity from a pseudoparenchymatous stroma beneath an integument of host tissue which ruptures at maturity.

Acropetal - (1) chains of conidia in which the youngest is the apex, basifungal; (2) a pattern of apical growth.




Aeciospore - a unicellular, non-repeating vegetative spore, usually resulting from dikaryotization, which germinates to give dikaryotic mycelium. Aeciospores are typically catenulate, thin-walled, and verrucose but sometimes they resemble typical urediniospores.



Aecium (pl. -ia) - a goblet- or cup-shaped sorus (state I of the demicyclic or macrocyclic rusts) in which originate the binucleate aeciospores capable of infecting a plant of a different species.

Amphigenous - making growth all round or on two sides.

Amyloid - stained blue by iodine.

Anamorph (adj. -ic) - the asexual ("imperfect") form or morph of fungi, e. g., that characterized only by presence or absence of conidia.

Anastomosis (pl. -oses) - the fusion between branches of the same or different hyphae or other structures to make a network.

Annellidic (of conidiogenesis) - holoblastic conidiogenesis in which the conidiogenous cell (annellide, annellophore) by repeated enteroblastic percurrent proliferation produces a basipetal sequence of conidia (annelloconidia, annellospores) leaving the distal end marked by transverse bands.

Antagonist - a general name for associations of organisms damaging to one or more of the associates.

Antagonism - a relation between different organisms in which one, partly or completely, inhibits the growth of another or kills it; usually applied to the effects of toxic metabolites of one organism on another, but does not exclude mutual inhibitions between organisms.




Antheridium (pl. -ia) - the male gametangium, either formed from a haplophase thallus, or in which meiosis occurs after delimitation.

Apical - at the end (or apex).

Apex - at the end.


Apothecium (pl. -ia) - a cup-like or saucer-like ascoma in which the hymenium is exposed at maturity, sessile or stipitate.




Appendage - a process (outgrowth) of any sort.




Appressorium - a swelling on a germ tube or hypha, especially for attachment in an early stage of infection.

Arbuscular fungi - fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota, forming vesicular-arbuscular or only arbuscular mycorrhizae in roots of vascular plants.



Arbuscule - finely branched, haustorium-like hyphae of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi formed intracellularly in the cortical cells of the plant host that is a site of fungus-host nutrient exchange.

Ascogenous - ascus-producing or -supporting.



Ascoma (pl. -ata) - an ascus-containing structure, ascocarp.




Ascospore - a spore produced in an ascus by "free cell formation".




Ascus - sac-like cell in which, after karyogamy and meiosis, ascospore (generally 8) are produced by "free cell formation".

Aseptate - with no septa.


Auxiliary cells

Auxiliary cell - soilborne structures of unknown function, of variable size and shape and borne singly or in clusters on coiled or straight hyphae by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi fungi of the genera Gigaspora, Pacispora, and Scutellospora.



Axenic cultures

Axenic (of cultures) - consisting of one organism; uncontaminated; a pure culture.

Ballistospore - a forcibly abjected basidiospore.



Basidiocarp - a basidium-producing organ.

Basidioma - (pl. -ata) - a basidium-producing organ.



Basidiospore - a propagative cell containing one or two haploid nuclei produced, after meiosis, on a basidium.




Basidium (pl. -ia) - the cell or organ, diagnostic for basidiomycetes, from which, after karyogamy and meiosis, basidiospores (generally 4) are produced externally, each on an extention (sterigma) of its wall.

Basipetal - formation of a chain of conidia in which new spores are formed at the base, and the oldest at the apex.

Basionym - the name-bringing or epithet-bringing synonym on which a new transfer or new combination is based.

Biotroph (adj. -trophic) - an obligate parasite growing on another organism, in intimate association with its cytoplasm.

Bitunicate - (1) having two walls; (2; of asci) with two functional layers, that may or may not rupture or extend at discharge.

Blastic - a type of spore development from a portion of a conidiogenous cell in which the conidium undergoes an obvious enlargement of the conidial primordium before it is delimited by a septum.


Blastoconidium (pl. -ia) - a blastic conidium.

Blastospore - an asexual reproductive spore that originates by budding, as in the yeasts and some filamentous fungi.

Caespitulus (pl. -li) - a tuft of spores.


Canker - a sunken, necrotic lesion of main root, stem or branch arising from disintegration of tissues outside the xylem cylinder, but sometimes limited in extend by host reactions which can result in more or less massive overgrowth of surrounding tissues; concentric zonation may indicate successive host responses to advancing infection.

Centripetal - towards the center.



Chlamydospore - an asexual, 1-celled spore originating endogenously and singly within part of a pre-existing cell, by the contraction of the protoplast and possessing an inner secondary and often thickened hyaline or brown wall, usually impregnated with hydrophobic material.

Cicatrized (of conidiogenous cells and conidia) - having thickened scars.

Clamp-connection (of basidiomycetes) - a hyphal outgrowth which, at cell division, makes a connection between the resulting two cells by fusion with the lower.


Cleistothecium (pl. -ia) - a closed fruitbody having no predefined opening.


Clypeate - having a clypeus.


Clypeus - a shield-like stromatic growth (operculum), with or without host tissue, over one or more ascomata or conidiomata.

Coelomycetes - anamorphic fungi forming conidia within a cavity lined by fungal or fungal/host tissue, e. g., pycnidium or acervulus.

Coenocyte (adj. coenocytic) - a multinucleate mass of protoplasm, non-cellular, in the sense of non-septate.

Conidiogenous, producing conidia; cell - any cell from or within which a conidium is directly produced.


Conidioma (pl. -ata) - a specialized multi-hyphal, conidia bearing structure, e. g., acervulus, pycnidium, sporodochium, synnema.




Conidiophore - a simple or branched hypha (a fertile hypha) bearing or consisting of conidiogenous cells from which conidia are produced.

Conidiosporangium (pl. -ia) - a deciduous, oval or limoniform sporangium, which on maturing can either germinate directly by means of a germ tube to form mycelium (as do the conidia of the true fungi), or can produce biflagellate, reniform zoospores, thus behaving like a zoosporangium. This phenomenon is observed, e. g., in Albugo candida and Phytophthora infestans.



Conidium (pl. -ia) - a specialized, non-motile (cf. zoospore), asexual spore, usually caducous, not developed by cytoplasmic cleavage (cf. sporangiospore) or free-cell formation (cf. ascospore); in some Oomycota produced through the incomplete development of zoosporangia which fall off and germinate to produce a germination tube.

Coprophilous - fungi growing on dung.

Cup fungus - a discomycete.

Cupulate - cup-like in form.

Damping off - collapse and death of seedlings which results from a lesion caused by a pathogen at ca. soil level.

Dehiscent (of asci or fruit-bodies) - opening when mature, by pores or by becoming broken into parts.

Dendritic - irregularly branched; tree-like.

Dendroid - tree-like in form; dendritic.

Dichotomous - branching, frequently successively, into two more or less equal arms.

Dikaryon (adj. -yotic) - a cell having two genetically distinct haploid nuclei.

Dimitic - having hyphae of two kinds (generative and skeletal hyphae which are thick-walled, aseptate, and of limited length, with thin-walled apices, generally unbranched but when terminal they can develop arboriform branching or taper) or generative and binding.

Discomycetes (cup fungi) - class of Ascomycota with taxa forming ascomata which are sessile, open, more or less saucer-shaped or cup-shaped apothecia.

Doliiform - barrel-like in form.

Downy mildew - popularly a fungus of the family Peronosporaceae.

Ectendomycorrhiza (pl. -ae) - a mycorrhiza with many of the characteristics of ectomycorrhizae (see below), but also exhibiting a high degree of intracellular penetration.

Ectocarpic - singly or in aggregates, not in sporocarps.


Ectomycorrhiza (pl. -ae) - a mycorrhiza in which the hyphae of the associated fungus only grow intercellularly, never within the cells of the associated plant.

Ectoparasite - a parasite living on the outside of its host.

Endophyte - an organism that occurs within a living plant.

Endosporium - an inner spore wall layer.

Enteroblastic - when the inner wall or neither wall of the blastic conidiogenous cell contributes to the formation of a conidium.

Epibasidium (pl. -ia) - promycelium of Uredinales.

Epigeous - growing on the surface.

Epiphyllous - on the upper surface of a leaf.

Episporium - the thick, fundamental layer which determines the shape of the spore.

Epithecium - tissue at the surface of an apothecium formed by the branching of the ends of the paraphyses above the asci.

Erumpent - bursting through the surface of the substratum.

Euseptate (of conidial septation) - having cells separated by multilayered walls of similar structure to lateral walls.

Excipulum (of ascomata) - tissue or tissues containing the hymenium in an apothecium, or forming the walls of a perithecium.

Extraradical hyphae

Extraradical hyphae (of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) - hyphae formed outside roots and absorbing nutrients from the soil and binding its grains into aggregates.

Facultative parasite - a saprobe having the power of living as a parasite; able to be cultured on laboratory media.

Facultative saprobe - a parasite having the power of living as a saprobe; able to be cultured on laboratory media.

Fissitunicate - asci with two functional wall layers, "jack-in-the box".

Forma specialis (f. sp.; pl. forame speciales, ff. sp.) - an intra specific taxon of a fungus characterized only in physiological or biochemical terms, particularly in pathogenicity or host adaptation. The term is more or less synonymous with pathotype and pathovar, the latter is used in plant bacteriology.

Fungicolous - fungi growing on other fungi as parasites ("mycoparasites").


Gametangium (pl. -ia) - cell containing gametes or gametic nuclei.



Germ tubes

Germ tube - a germination hypha which is formed by a germinating spore.



Germination walls

Germination wall - the innermost wall of species of the genera Acaulospora, Archaeospora, Entrophospora, Gigaspora, Pacispora, and Scutellospora of the phylum Glomeromycota (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) from which germ tubes arise directly or from germination orbs or shields associated with this wall.



Germination orbs

Germination orb - a circular or an oval structure formed by a centrifugally rolled hypha from which germ tubes can arise, emanating from the innermost germination wall of spores of the genera Acaulospora, Archaeospora, and Entrophospora of the phylum Glomeromycota (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi).



Germination shields


Germination shied - an oval to irregularly shaped plate-like structure from which germ tubes can arise, emanating from the innermost germination wall of spores of the genera Pacispora and Scutellospora of the phylum Glomeromycota (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi).




Haustorium (pl. -ia) - a special hyphal branch within a living cell of the host for absorption of food.

Heterothallic - (1) having the mal and female organs segregated in distinct thalli, so that two thalli are required for sexual reproduction to occur; (2) species which both male and female organs are borne on the same thallus, but they are self-sterile (self-incompatible), because of which it is necessary to have two compatible thalli (cross fertilization) to achieve sexual reproduction.


Hilum (pl. -la) - a mark or scar, especially that on a spore at the point of attachment to a conidiogenous cell or sterigma.

Holobasidium - a basidium in which the metabasidium is not divided by primary septa but may become adventitiously septate.

Holoblastic - when both outer and inner walls of the blastic (see blastic) conidiogenous cell contribute to the formation of the conidium.

Homothallism (adj. -ic) - the condition in which sexual reproduction can occur without the interaction of two differing thalli.

Hyaline - transparent or near so; translucent; frequently used in the sense of colourless.

Hymenophor - a spore-bearing structure, especially a basidioma, or that part of it bearing the hymenium.

Hyperplasia + hypertrophy

Hyperplasia - abnormal enlargement of plant tissue resulting from increased cell division.

Hyperplasia + hypertrophy

Hypertrophy - a plant overgrowth due to abnormal cell enlargement.

Hypogeous - in the soil.

Hyphomycetes - anamorphic fungi forming conidia on the surface of their hosts, not in cavities.

Hypophyllous - on the under surface of a leaf.

Indehiscent (of sporocarps, sporangia, etc.) - not opening, or with no special method of opening.

Inoperculate (of an ascus or sporangium) - opening by an irregular split to discharge the spores.

Intercalary - (1; of growth) between the apex and the base; (2; of cells, spores, etc.) - between two cells.

Intercellular - between cells.

Intra- (prefix) - within; inside.

Intracellular - within the cell.

Intraradical hyphae

Intraradical hyphae (of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) - hyphae formed inside roots and distributing the nutrients absorbed by extraradical hyphae.



J+ and J- reaction in Melzer's reagent

J+ or J- - blue, red, lavender, or violet staining reaction of asci, spores, spore wall layers, hymenial tissues, etc. when mounted in Melzer's reagent.

Lichenicolous fungi - fungi rowing on lichens.

Locule (loculus) - a cavity, especially in a stroma.

Lysigenous - formed by the breaking down of cells.

Macromycetes - fungi having large (macroscopic) sporocarps.

Macronematous (of conidiophores) - morphologically different from vegetative hyphae.


Matrix - (1) the substratum in or on which an organism is living; (2) mucilaginous material in which conidia and some ascospores are produced, influences dissemination, survival, germination, etc.

Medulla - the part composed of mainly or entirely of longitudinal hyphae.

Melzer's reagent - see here.

Metabasidium (pl. -ia) - the morphological part or developmental stage in which meiosis occurs.

Micronematous - (1) having hyphae of small diameter; (2; of conidiophores) similar morphologically to vegetative hyphae.

Moniliform - having swelling at regular intervals like a string of beads.

Monomytic - having hyphae of one kind (generative hyphae which are branched, septate, with or without clamp-connections, thin- to thick-walled, and of unlimited length; they give rise both to other hyphal types and to the hymenium).

Monopodial - a type of branching in which a persistent main axis gives off branches, one at a time and frequently in alternate or spiral series.


Mummy - a dried, hard fruit with wrinkled skin.




Muriform - a structure, e. g., a spore divided by intersecting septa in more than one plane.

Mycelium - a mass of hyphae; the thallus of a fungus.

Mycoparasitism (hyperparasitism) - the parasitism of one fungus by another (the mycoparasite).

Mycorrhiza (pl. mycorrhizas, mycorrhizae) - a symbiotic, non-pathogenic or feebly or weakly pathogenic association of a fungus and the roots of a plant.

Necrotic - dead.

Necrotroph (adj. -trophic) - a parasite that derives its energy from dead cells of the host.

Obligate - (1) necessary; essential; (2; of a parasite) - an organism that occurs in an intimate association with, and which is wholly dependent for its nutrition on, another living organism.


Oidium (pl. -ia) - flat-ended conidia formed by the breaking up (usually centripetally) of a hypha into cells.

Operculate - (of an ascus or sporangium) - opening by an apical lid to discharge the spores.



Operculum - a cover or lid.

Oogonium (pl. -ia) - uninucleate or coenocytic cell producing female gametes (oospores).

Oosphere (of Oomycota) - the female gamete; the "egg" of the oogonium.

Oospore (of oomycetes) - the resting spore from a fertilized oosphere; a like structure produced by parthenogenesis.


Ostiolum - (pl. ostiole) - the schizogenous, paraphysislined cavity, ending in a pore, in the papilla or neck of a perithecium; any pore by which spores are freed from an ascigerous or pycnidial fruit-body.




Papilla - a small rounded process.

Papillate - having a papilla.



Paraphysis (pl. -yses) - a sterile upward growing, basally attached hyphal element in a hymenium, especially in ascomycetes where they are generally filiform, unbranched or branched, the free ends frequently make an epithecium over the asci.

Parasexual cycle - a mechanism found in filamentous fungi by which re-combination of hereditary properties is based not on sexual reproduction (meiosis) but on the mitotic cycle. The features of the process are: (1) the production of diploid nuclei in a heterokaryotic haploid mycelium; (2) the multiplication of the diploid nuclei along with haploid nuclei in a heterokaryotic mycelium; (3) the sorting out of a diploid homokaryon; (4) segregation and recombination by crossing-over at mitosis; and (5) haploidization of the diploid nuclei.

Parasite - an organism living on or in, and obtaining its nutrients from, its host, another living organism.

Pathogen - a parasite able to cause disease in a particular host or range of hosts.

Percurrent - (1) extending throughout the entire length, as of the columella of a gasteromycete basidioma; (2) growing through in the direction of the long axis, as of a conidial germ tube emerging through the hilum or of a proliferation growing through the tip of the conidiogenous cell.



Peridium - the wall or limiting membrane of a sporangium or other fruit-body; an outer envelope of hyphae on a sporocarp or other fructification.

Periphysis (pl. -ses) - an upward pointing hypha inside, or near, the ostiole of a perithecium, pycnidium, or pycnium.


Perithecium (pl. -ia) - a subglobose or flask-like ostiolate ascoma.

Phialide - a cell which develops one or more open ended conidiogenous loci from which a basipetal succession of conidia, phialospores, develops without an increase in length of the phialide itself. In some fungi, the phialide may be the conidiophore; more frequently the phialide is either an end cell of a conidiophore or attached to a conidiophore.

Phialidic - the sort of conidiogenesis in which each conidium (phialoconidium, phialidic conidium, phialospore) originates by the laying down of new wall material not from existing walls or layers of the wall of the conidiogenous cell (phialide).

Plasmodium (pl. -ia) - a multinucleate, motile mass of protoplasm bounded by a plasma membrane but lacking a wall.

Plectenchyma - a thick tissue formed by hyphae becoming twisted and fixed together.

Pluriseptate - many-septate.

Polyphagy (adj. -gous) - the condition of having the thallus in one host cell.

Porospore - see tretic.

Powdery mildews (or powdery mildew fungi) - fungi of the order Erysiphales.

Probasidium (pl. -ia) - the morphological part or developmental stage of the basidium in which karyogamy occurs.

Prokaryote (adj. -otic) - an organism lacking membrane-limited nuclei and not exhibiting mitosis, e. g., bacteria.

Promycelium - the germ tube of the teliospore of the Uredinales or ustilospore of the Ustilaginales from which promycelial spores (sporidia) are produced.

Propagule - that form or part of an organism by which it may be dispersed or reproduced.

Protobasidium (pl. -ia) - a primitive basidium; the opposite of metabasidium in the sense of changed or degenerate basidium.

Pseudoidium (pl. -idia) - a separated hyphal cell able to be germinated.

Pseudoparaphyses - a neutral term for all kinds of hyphae or other tissues between asci, or projecting into the locule or ostiole.

Pseudomycelium - loosely united, catenulate groups of cells.

Pseudoparenchyma (pl. -ta; adj. -tous) - a type of plectenchyma composed of closely united angular or isodiametric cells; the hyphae involved in the formation of a pseudoparenchyma lose their individuality.

Pseudosclerotium - a compact mass of intermixed substratum (soil, stones, etc.) held together by mycelium.

Pseudostroma (pl. -ata; adj. -atic) - (1) a stroma formed of thalline tissue and remnants of host tissue; (2) an aggregation of perithecial ascomata into a pustule some partly of bark cells altered by the fungus; (3) a coelomycetous conidioma of fungal and host tissue.

Pycnidium (pl. -ia; adj. -idial) - a frequently ± flask-shaped conidioma of fungal tissue with a circular or longitudinal ostiole, the inner surface of which is lined entirely or partially by conidiogenous cells.


Pycnium (in Uredinales) - the pycnidium-like haploid fruit-body, or spermogonium.

Pycnothyrium (adj. -ial) - a superficial flattened shield-shaped conidioma with radiate upper and sometimes lower walls.

Race - one of a group of forms alike in morphology, but unlike in certain cultural, physiological, biochemical, pathological, or other characters.

Ramoconidium (pl. -a) - an apical branch of a conidiophore which secedes and functions as a conidium, as in Cladosporium spp.

Receptive hyphae


Receptive hypha - a hypha that receives a gametic nucleus during sexual reproduction; the fertilization of a receptive hypha (considered as female) occurs, e. g., in the union of a hypha of a spermogonium with a spermatium, as in Puccinia spp. of the Uredinales.



Receptacle - an axis having one or more organs.

Saccate - like a sac or bag.

Saprotroph (saprogen, saprobe; adj. -phic, -nic, -bic, respectively) - an organism using dead material as food, and commonly causing its decay.


Sclerotium (pl. -ia) - a firm, frequently rounded, mass of hyphae with or without the addition of host tissue or soil, normally having no spores in or on it. A sclerotium may give rise to a fruit body, a stroma, mycelium.




Septate - having septa.

Setose - covered with bristles.

Sorus (pl. -ri) - a fruiting structure in certain fungi, e. g., the spore mass in Uredinales and Ustilaginales.


Sperm - a male sex cell, typically motile.


Spermatium (pl. -ia) - a sex cell (+ or -) cell, e. g., a pycniospore; a microconidium in discomycetes and pyrenomycetes; a non-motile gamete, as in Laboulbeniales.




Spermogonium (pl. -ia) - a walled structure in which spermatia are produced.




Sporangiophore - thallus element (usually morphologically differentiated) subtending one or more sporangia.

Sporangiospore - walled spore produced in a sporangium.

Sporangium (pl. -ia) - an organ enclosing endogenously generated spore(s).

Spore - a general term for a reproductive structure in fungi, bacteria, and cryptogamic plants.

Spore wall

Spore wall (of arbuscular fungi) - the structural wall giving a spore its shape.

Sporidium (pl. -ia) - (1) a basidiospore of the Uredinales and Ustilaginales or, in the latter, any spore other than an ustilospore; (2) ascospore.


Sporiferous saccule

Sporiferous saccule - the hypha emanating from a spore or other structure from which the spore arose.




Sporocarp - a general term for spore-bearing organs; fruit-body; a fruiting body with spores borne closely together in a structure that may be surrounded by peridial hyphae.




Sporodochium (adj. -ial) - conidioma, typical of the Tuberculariaceae in which the spore mass is supported by a superficial cushion-like mass of short conidiophores and pseudoparenchyma.



Sporogenous cell

Sporogenous cell (of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) - a cell giving rise to a spore.

Sporophore - a spore-producing or -supporting structure, e. g., conidiophore, a basidium.

Sporulation - the production of spores.

Statismospore - a spore not forcibly discharged.


Sterigma (pl. -ata; of basidium) - an extension of the metabasidium composed of a basal filamentous or inflated part (the protobasidium; epibasidium) and an apical spore-bearing projection (the spiculum).

Stipitate - stalked.

Strain - (1) a group of clonally related individuals or cells; (2) a homokaryotic mycelium.

Stroma (pl. -ata; adj. -atic) - a mass or matrix of vegetative hyphae, with or without tissue of the host or substrate, sometimes sclerotium-like in form, in or on which spores or fruit bodies bearing spores are produced.

Subiculum (adj. -late) - a net-, wool-, or crust-like growth of mycelium under fruit-bodies.

Subtending hyphae

Subtending hypha (of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) - the hypha below or attached to a spore from which the spore arose.

Subulate - slender and tapering to a point.

Supra (prefix) - above.

Sympodial (of a conidiophore or a sporangium) - continued growth, after the main axis has formed a terminal spore, and the development of a succession of apices, each of which originates below, and to one side of, the previous apex.


Synnema (pl. -ata; adj. -atous) - a conidioma composed of a more or less compacted group of erect and sometimes fused conidiophores bearing conidia at the apex only or on both apex and sides.

Systemic - spreading internally throughout the plant body.

Teleomorph - the sexual ("perfect") form or morph of fungi, e. g., that characterized by ascomata or basidiomata.

Telia and teliospores

Teliospore - the spore, commonly a winter or resting spore, of the orders Uredinales and Ustilaginales from which the basidium is produced.

Telium (pl. -ia) - the group of binucleate cells in a sorus that produces teliospores, which are resistant spores in the parasitic fungi of plants called rusts and smuts (Uredinales Ustilaginales). The telia of the rusts are a state in the life cycle that is always present, unlike the spermogonia, aecia, and uredinia that can be lacking in said cycle, depending on the species being treated.

Textura - tissue types, a term applied in all ascomycetes and coelomycetes.

Thallus (pl. -lli) - the vegetative body or soma of a fungus.

Trabecula (pl. -ae; adj. -ate) - (1) a lamella primordium; (2) plates of undifferentiated primordial tissue in the developing gleba forming a branch of a dendroid columella; (3; of pseudoparaphyses), paraphysoids, tinophyses.

Tretic conidia

Tretic (of conidiogenesis) - the sort of conidiogenesis in which each conidium (tretoconidium, tretic conidium, poroconidium, porospore) is delimited by an extension of the inner wall of the conidiogenous cell. Tretoconidia are solitary or in acropetal chains.

Trichogyne - the receptive hypha of the female organ, especially in certain ascomycetes.




Unilocular - a single cavity.

Uniseriate - in one row.

Uredinium (pl. -ia) - a pustule, ochre or red-oxide in colour that produces urediniospores, and which the rust fungi (Uredinales) form in tissues of the infected plant. The uredinia lack a peridium or proper wall, since they push out through the torn epidermis of the host, i. e., they are erumpent.

Telia and teliospores

Urediniospore - repeating vegetative spores, usually on dikaryotic mycelium, formed in uredinia; frequently called "summer spores).

Ustilospore - name for a smut spore.



Vesicle - any hyphal swelling; (of vesicular-arbuscular fungi) - hyphal swelling, usually terminal, occurring in mycorrhizal plant roots.

Wound parasite - parasite infecting its host through a wound.

Zoospore - a motile sporangiospore, i. e., one having flagella.

Zygosporangia and zygospores

Zygosporangium - a sporangium that contains a zygospore; it develops after the fusion of two gametangia.

Zygospore - a latent spore, contained in a zygosporangium, which results from the fusion of two gametangia.

Zygote - the result of fusion of two gametes; a cell in which two nuclei of opposite sex have undergone fusion.


Agrios G. N. 1988. Plant pathology, 3rd edition, Academic Press, INC. San Diego, New York, Berkeley, Boston, London, Sydney, Tokyo, Toronto.

Kirk P. M., Cannon P. F., David J. C., Stalpers J. A. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisy's dictionary of the fungi, ninth Edition. CAB International.

Schenck N. C., Perez Y. 1990. Manual for the identification of VA mycorrhizal fungi. Plant Pathology Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida , INVAM, Gainesville.

Ulloa M., Hanlin R. T. 2000. Illustrated dictionary of mycology. APS Press. The American Phytopathological Society. St. Paul, Minnesota.